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Interconnect Defects (ICDs)

What you need to know about Interconnect Defects (ICDs) Inner-layer separation, or interconnect defects (ICDs), can lead to circuit failure in PCBs. To create a fully functional PCB, a manufacturer must look out for ICDs and their causes. Here is a look at ICDs and how manufacturers prevent and correct them. What Are Interconnect Defects (ICDs)? During PCB production, the manufacturer drills through the inner-layer circuit and plated the hole with electroless copper to connect the inner-layer circuits together. This copper plated hole, usually called a via, brings the circuits to the top layer of the board. The via enables the PCBs’ different layers to connect, giving it functionality. However, sometimes a defect occurs in or near this drilled hole. This flaw is called an interconnect defect (ICD) or inner-layer separation. As the term implies, ICDs involve a separation between the copper filler and the circuits. These components must connect properly

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Environmental Impact of Semiconductor and Electronics Manufacturing

The Environmental Impact of Semiconductor and Electronics Manufacturing Printed circuit boards, semiconductors and other types of electronics have more advanced technology than ever. However, with increasing complexity in product design comes a wider range of materials used. Some of the substances traditionally used to create PCBs can cause harm to the environment and the people who handle them. Fortunately, the electronics industry has also taken measures to reduce its impact on the planet. This guide will explain common environmental issues associated with printed circuit boards and how suppliers and manufacturers address them. Are Printed Circuit Boards Hazardous Waste? PCBs include a variety of materials. While some substances used in PCB production count as hazardous waste, others have no negative impact on people or the environment. In 2011, the European Union published the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Act (RoHS), which limits or bans the use of certain materials in PCBs and

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Why Are Circuit Boards Usually Green?

Why Are Circuit Boards Usually Green? Imagine a printed circuit board. What color do you think of? While PCBs and other circuit boards come in more colors than ever, the majority of them come in a signature green color. As someone who works with PCBs, you may wonder why so many of them have a green solder mask coating. Nobody has a definite answer, but plenty of experts have educated guesses. Discover the possible reasons why PCBs often come in green and the other color choices available to you. Potential Reason #1: Materials The first possible answer is the simplest: Glass epoxy, a material used in the past to create solder masks, is naturally green. Green possibly became the standard the industry was accustomed to, so even when solder mask coatings in different colors became possible, many manufacturers still opted for green. Solder mask materials that come in green now

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PCB Trace Width vs. Current Table

A PCB trace width vs. current table helps you understand the relationship between PCB trace width and current carrying capacity so you can determine the required trace width for your printed circuit board design. Relationship Trace Width and Current Carrying Capacity The relationship between trace width and current carrying capacity in your printed circuit boards is fairly straightforward. Specifically, a cross-sectional area of trace and temperature rise determine your current carrying capacity, with your cross-section of trace directly proportional to copper thickness and trace width. However, this does not necessarily mean that trace carrying capacity is directly proportional to cross-sectional area. Calculating the maximum current that a trace is able to hold based solely on trace width and temperature rise is not always a simple calculation, as you may already have found. Why should this be the case? Elements Determining Maximum Current Carrying Capacity The reason why it is not

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Guide to PCBs and IoT

With nicknames like “the fourth Industrial Revolution” or “the infrastructure of the information society,” the Internet of Things, or IoT, has grown into the most significant movement since the birth of the dot-com. The effects of the IoT have become deeply woven into the framework of technology and daily life. What many consumers may not realize is Internet of Things PCBs are at the forefront of the IoT infiltration into everyday tech and that, likewise, the IoT is playing an integral role in a shift in PCB design and manufacture. As the demand for more IoT devices rises, understanding the interconnections between IoT and Flex and HDI PCBs is increasingly crucial for PCB designers. What Is IoT? The Internet of Things is the crossover between the physical and the digital world brought forth by the creation of devices other than PCs that connect to IP networks. Smartphones might be the

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What Is Line Efficiency?

What Is Line Efficiency? When it comes to printed circuit boards, line efficiency is the ratio of the number of hours a pick-and-place machine positions parts on the PCB divided by the quantity of hours the SMT assembly lines are staffed. There are different ways to measure line efficiency, including capacity utilization, which is calculated by comparing the production to an average level of acceptable production and line efficiency. Understanding line efficiency is very important for manufacturers and assemblers of printed circuit boards. The faster a manufacturer can churn out fully-assembled printed circuit boards that work as intended, the more money that manufacturer of PCBs can make. If a PCB manufacturer/assembler is systematically losing efficiency and underproducing, identifying and rooting out the problem must be done quickly to avoid business failure. Line Efficiency Formula When calculating line efficiency, deciding to use the SMT line efficiency or production line efficiency calculation

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PCB Layout Considerations

PCB Layout Considerations Designing the layout of your printed circuit board is crucial to creating a reliable, cost-effective board. While circuit design and component selection are also essential, you should always make sure you leave enough time for PCB layout. A lot goes into determining the optimal PCB layout design, especially since today’s boards are becoming more complex, compact and lightweight. The growing popularity of flexible PCBs complicates the process, too. If you don’t account for important PCB layout considerations, you may end up with a design that doesn’t translate well to the real world. An inadequate layout can result in problems such as electromagnetic interference, conflicts from components on either side of the board, limited board functionality and even total board failure. Plus, if you don’t get the layout right the first time around, you will need to rework it, which can cause manufacturing delays and added costs. So,

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PCB Hole Types

PCB Hole Types Printed circuit boards have many different features, all of which affect the physical appearance and function of the board. Some of these features we think about more often, such as how many layers of PCB you have or the type of material supporting your board, but there are other design elements that may get less consideration, including, for example, holes in the board. In particular, some printed circuit boards require screw holes in order to attach them in your applications — and how you drill these screw holes is significant. The two main methods of drilling screw holes in PCBs are counterbore and countersink. Different types of screws call for different types of screw holes, so the kind of screws you will be using largely dictate whether you are drilling counterbore holes, countersink holes or both for your PCBs. So, what are the specific differences between countersink

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Vias on BGA Pads

Vias on BGA Pads Have you been considering a PCB design with via-in-pad? Via-in-pad design is becoming increasingly popular, and if you’re not familiar with the idea of vias on BGA pads, it may be in your best interests to explore this new printed circuit board design option that seems to be growing in popularity.   What Is a Via-in-Pad? A via-in-pad design, as the name indicates, is a printed circuit board design with the vias directly on the BGA pads. The main benefit of a via-in-pad design, also called VIP design, is that you reduce the area needed for the vias, making it easier to manufacture miniaturized PCBs and dramatically minimizing the amount of board area you need for signal routing. With via holes connected directly to layers beneath the component, you can have signal routing without escaping the device footprint perimeter.   Is It Considered Bad Practice to

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PCBs for Harsh Environments

PCBs for Harsh Environments In today’s technology-focused world, printed circuit boards have many different applications. Depending on your industry, you may need printed circuit boards that can operate in harsh environments. However, even if you have not needed printed circuit boards for harsh environments in the past, it may benefit you to know how they are created and how your industry could potentially benefit from them. What Are Harsh Environments? The first question you may be asking is what exactly are harsh environments? Harsh environments are environments where your printed circuit board may be surrounded by hazardous conditions that could damage sensitive electronic parts. This includes areas where there can be an extreme buildup of moisture, where temperature extremes may exist, where aggressive chemicals may be present or where toxic vapors might be found in the atmosphere. Elements like fungus, salt spray or even intense mechanical vibration are also among

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PCB Glossary

  • Bed-Of-Nails Fixture

    A test fixture consisting of a frame and a holder containing a field of spring-loaded pins that make electrical contact with a planar test object (i.e., a PCB).