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ENIG Black Pad

Quick Links: What Is ENIG Black Pad? | What Causes Black Pad? | How to Prevent Black Pad | How to Fix Black Pad

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What You Need to Know About PCB Assembly

Jump To: PCBA Terminology | Through-Hole Assembly |  Surface Mount Technology | Mixed Technology | PCB Manufacturing at Millennium Circuits Limited What You Need to Know About PCB Assembly The printed circuit board (PCB) assembly process consists of various steps that must be performed in the proper sequence for the finished product to function as designed. To ensure that this happens, PCB manufacturers use screen templates and controlled heating and cooling mechanisms to regulate how components are applied and fastened into place. When you assemble a printed circuit board, you must choose the right technology for the type of components at hand. All of the parts and pieces must be correctly aligned in their designated spot, as specified in the PCB design. Any deviation, ever so slight, can have huge ramifications on the functions of the finished board. PCBA Terminology To understand the PCB assembly process, you need to know the meaning of several terms: Substrate: The foundational material

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Guide to IPC Standards for PCBs

Jump To: Why Do IPC Standards Matter? | Improved Product Quality and Reliability | Improved Communication | Reduced Costs | Improved Reputation and New Opportunities | Terminology You Should Know | A History of IPC Standards | Examples of IPC Standards | Our Commitment to Quality Guide to IPC Standards for PCBs As manufacturers of printed circuit boards, or PCBs, know, ensuring quality throughout the manufacturing process is critical and requires careful attention at all phases. Adhering to standards from the trade association IPC can help. What Is IPC? IPC is the trade association for the electronic interconnection industry. It provides standards for the assembly and protection of electronic equipment, as well as training, market research and public policy advocacy. IPC is a member-driven organization and has more than 4,800 member companies around the world. Its members include companies in all aspects of the global electronics industry, including designers, suppliers, board manufacturers, assembly companies and original equipment manufacturers. The organization got its start in 1957 as

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Coin Insertion Technology as a PCB Thermal Solution

Coin Insertion Technology as a PCB Thermal Solution If you need PCBs for high-power components, a built-in cooling feature can be very important for keeping your PCB from overheating. Coin insertion technology for PCBs can be an extremely effective solution for thermal management. When it comes to embedded coin thermal management solutions, some of the most popular options are Embedded T-Coin, Embedded I-Coin and Embedded C-Coin. What Are PCB Embedded Copper Coin Thermal Solutions? The standard way to dissipate heat in a printed circuit board is through thermal vias. But most PCB material is not particularly good for heat transfer. Copper, on the other hand, is an excellent conductor of heat, which is why adding copper to your PCB is highly effective when you need to dissipate heat from an active PCB. With embedded coin technology, you can insert a piece of copper directly under the component to absorb and

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How Different Technologies Affect the PCB Cost

Jump To: Factors That Affect PCB Cost | Material Choice | PCB Size | Numbers of Layers | Finish (ENIG, HASL, etc.) | Size of Hole | Minimum Trace and Space | The Thickness and Aspect Ratio | Custom or Unique Specifications | PCB of Different Designs How Different Technologies Affect the PCB Cost PCB technologies involve high levels of intricacy. Depending on the design of a circuit board, its production could be more or less costly than the average PCB. If a PCB is intended for an everyday conventional item, the cost to manufacture the board itself should be significantly lower than the price of a board designed for high-tech machinery. Factors That Affect PCB Cost The three factors that most impact PCB manufacturing cost breakdown are the type of material, the size of the board and the number of layers. Other factors that can also impact price include the finish and the size of the holes, including these eight. 1. Material Choice The materials used in

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PCB Jump Scoring

PCB Jump Scoring – V Scoring Explained Many in the electronics industry agree that V-scoring and PCB Jump Scoring are both extremely useful features when it comes to printed circuit boards. But what is V-scoring, and why might you want to use it for your PCBs? What Is V-Scoring? V-scoring is when you cut double-sided marks into the laminate of the printed circuit board to make it easier to remove individual parts from the circuit board array. To V-score your boards requires a scoring tool consisting of a top and a bottom cutting blade that you run across the panel in a straight line. In some scoring machines, you pull the panel through the blades to create the scoring. Why Use V-Scoring for Printed Circuit Boards? V-scoring is used consistently in printed circuit board assembly because it is a great cost saver and a highly efficient way to offer easy

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History of PCB Innovations and Their Impact

Jump To: What Are Printed Circuit Boards? | Where Are Printed Circuit Boards Used | The History of PCBs | 1850-1900 | 1900-1950 | 1950-2000 | 2000 and Beyond | Quality Printed Circuit Boards Printed circuit boards are the internal components that transmit electrical signals through electronic devices. Every time you turn on a computer or press a button on a smartphone, radio alarm or stereo component, you are interacting with a printed circuit board, which are inside the enclosures of all such devices. If electricity is the lifeblood of electronics, printed circuit boards are the vital internal organs. In today’s heavily device-dependent world, most people are unaware of the complex circuitry contained in each smartphone or portable MP3 player. Without printed circuit boards, modern-day technology would have never become possible. What Are Printed Circuit Boards? A printed circuit board (PCB) is a substrate device that features etched-on electrical components. PCBs come in single, double-layer and multi-layer varieties with corresponding copper layers. The highest-density

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Low-Temperature PCB Material

Low-Temperature PCB Material Printed circuit boards, even standard FR-4 PCBs, are incredibly resilient pieces of electronics. There are certain conditions for which these boards will not be appropriate. For example, PCBs for aerospace may be subjected to extreme temperatures, both very high and very low temperatures. For situations requiring PCBs that can handle extremely low-temperatures, also called cryogenic PCBs, special low-temperature PCB material may be necessary. What Is the Minimum Temperature for FR-4 PCBs? The typical FR-4 PCB should be able to withstand temperatures close to -50°C. At this point, you may start to find brittle cracks in the material. While this is quite cold, you will generally prefer your FR-4 PCBs not to get anywhere near this standard to minimize stress and lengthen the life of your PCB. Furthermore, in industries like the aerospace industry, where PCBs may end up in outer space, the board may be exposed to

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Guide to Moisture Sensitivity in PCB

Jump To: How Moisture Can Affect a PCB | Detecting and Removing Moisture | Why Does It Happen? | IPC Standards For Moisture | How to Prevent Moisture In PCBs | How to Remove Moisture From PCBs | Printed Circuit Boards From MCL   While the effects of delamination can be detected via thermal imaging and acoustic microscopy, they won’t always show in the form of obvious symptoms like discoloration and blistered surfaces. Overall, it’s highly preferable to prevent moisture from reaching the PCB in the first place. This protection can be achieved through processes like pre-baking and proper storage. The design of the PCB can also affect whether moisture is more or less likely to be an issue.One of the most troubling issues with printed circuit boards (PCBs) involves the presence of moisture. If moisture exists within a PCB, the destabilization caused by it is liable to have a delaminating effect on the surface elements. Anytime soldering or rework is

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Flex and Rigid-Flex Bend Capabilities in PCB Design

Flex and Rigid-Flex Bend Capabilities in PCB Design Certain applications require flex or rigid-flex printed circuit boards to function. These are devices that are particularly small or unusually shaped, so that you must bend the printed circuit board for it to fit inside the device. Naturally, there are certain parameters you will want to know about when it comes to your flex or rigid-flex circuit boards. What You Need to Know About Flex Bend Radius Naturally, you need to know the bend radius of your flex or rigid-flex boards. What you need to know before determining the adequate minimum bend radius is the type of flex printed board design standard you will be working with. These design standards are Flex to Install, Dynamic Flex and One Time Crease. How to Calculate Flex and Rigid Bend Flex Radius In a Flex to Install printed circuit board design, you bend the flex

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PCB Glossary

  • Phototool

    A transparent film that contains the circuit pattern, which is represented by a series of lines of dots at a high resolution.