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Low-Temperature PCB Material

Low-Temperature PCB Material Printed circuit boards, even standard FR-4 PCBs, are incredibly resilient pieces of electronics. There are certain conditions for which these boards will not be appropriate. For example, PCBs for aerospace may be subjected to extreme temperatures, both very high and very low temperatures. For situations requiring PCBs that can handle extremely low-temperatures, also called cryogenic PCBs, special low-temperature PCB material may be necessary. What Is the Minimum Temperature for FR-4 PCBs? The typical FR-4 PCB should be able to withstand temperatures close to -50°C. At this point, you may start to find brittle cracks in the material. While this is quite cold, you will generally prefer your FR-4 PCBs not to get anywhere near this standard to minimize stress and lengthen the life of your PCB. Furthermore, in industries like the aerospace industry, where PCBs may end up in outer space, the board may be exposed to

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Guide to Moisture Sensitivity in PCB

How Moisture Can Affect a PCB IPC Standards For Moisture Printed Circuit Baords From MCL Detecting and Removing Moisture How to Prevent Moisture In PCBs Why Does It Happen? How to Remove Moisture From PCBs One of the most troubling issues with printed circuit boards (PCBs) involves the presence of moisture. If moisture exists within a PCB, the destabilization caused by it is liable to have a delaminating effect on the surface elements. Anytime soldering or rework is applied to the PCB, the delamination could easily expand as a result of the moisture contents. While the effects of delamination can be detected via thermal imaging and acoustic microscopy, they won’t always show in the form of obvious symptoms like discoloration and blistered surfaces. Overall, it’s highly preferable to prevent moisture from reaching the PCB in the first place. This protection can be achieved through processes like pre-baking and proper storage.

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Flex and Rigid-Flex Bend Capabilities in PCB Design

Flex and Rigid-Flex Bend Capabilities in PCB Design Certain applications require flex or rigid-flex printed circuit boards to function. These are devices that are particularly small or unusually shaped, so that you must bend the printed circuit board for it to fit inside the device. Naturally, there are certain parameters you will want to know about when it comes to your flex or rigid-flex circuit boards. What You Need to Know About Flex Bend Radius Naturally, you need to know the bend radius of your flex or rigid-flex boards. What you need to know before determining the adequate minimum bend radius is the type of flex printed board design standard you will be working with. These design standards are Flex to Install, Dynamic Flex and One Time Crease. How to Calculate Flex and Rigid Bend Flex Radius In a Flex to Install printed circuit board design, you bend the flex

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Conductive vs. Non-Conductive Via Fill PCB

Conductive vs. Non-Conductive Via Fill PCB When it comes to your PCB via fill, you have two choices. You can opt for a conductive fill or a non-conductive fill. What are the benefits and disadvantages of each option? Why would you choose one over the other? Conductive Via Fill If you choose to fill your vias with conductive epoxy, your main choice is usually between the silver-coated copper particle epoxy matrices of the Tatsuto AE3030 epoxy fill or the DuPont CB100. Both offer thermal and electrical conductivity when cured. The DuPont fill has a larger particulate size and a higher finished co-efficient of thermal expansion (CTE), as well as a longstanding reputation for being a highly effective conductive epoxy fill. Non-Conductive Via Fill If you are choosing a non-conductive epoxy for your via fill, you will often choose the Peters PP2795 epoxy. However, a popular alternative over the last few

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What Is PCB Via Tenting?

What Is PCB Via Tenting? If you use printed circuit boards in your business applications, you may have heard about the idea of via tenting in printed circuit board construction. What is via tenting, and should you tent your vias in your PCBs or not? What Does It Mean to Tent a Via? The vias are the holes in your printed circuit board that allow signals to transmit from one side of the board to the other or from one layer of the board to another. They are typically copper plated to allow conductivity through the via. Some PCB fabricators feel that these holes should be covered rather than left exposed. If the hole is closed entirely, this is called a filled via or mask plugged via, depending upon the method you use to close the hole. If the annual ring is merely covered over with solder mask, this is

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Hole Plating

Specifications About Hole Plating: What You Need to Know About the Plated Through Hole Process Do you need PCB hole plating, or can your printed circuit boards survive without it? You have probably heard arguments for both. Here’s what you need to know about the benefits and risks of hole plating vs. no hole plating so you can decide what’s best for your PCBs. Benefits of Hole Plating The point of plated through holes is so you can use both sides of your printed circuit board and connect to other layers of the board. The plating on the through holes is copper, a conductor, so it allows electrical conductivity to travel through the board. Non-plated through holes do not have conductivity, so if you use them, you can only have useful copper tracks on one side of the board. You cannot connect to the other side or other boards because

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Matte Finish vs. Gloss Finish in PCBs

Matte Finish vs. Gloss Finish in PCBs One of the final decisions you may make when it comes to your printed circuit boards is whether to go with a shiny solder mask, also called a glossy finish, or to opt for a matte finish. PCBs function equally well with a glossy finish or a matte finish, so this decision is not critical. In many cases, those ordering PCBs will leave this decision up to the fabricator, who will typically choose a gloss finish by default. For information purposes, and to help you decide whether or not you have a preference, here are the differences between a glossy finish and a matte finish for your PCBs. Choosing a Gloss Finish Over a Matte Finish The main difference between a gloss finish and a matte finish is an aesthetic one, and many people feel that a gloss finish simply looks better. Gloss

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Guide to PCB Grounding Techniques

What Is a Ground? What to Remember When Grounding Minimize the Use of Series Vias Grounding Terminology Ensure Everything Is Attached Have a Common Ground Point PCB Grounding Techniques Keep Your Ground Layer Whole Partner With Millennium Circuits Limited Guide to PCB Grounding Techniques Grounding is a critical concept for any electronic circuit and any system dealing with electric current. Everything from the electric grid to a home to a printed circuit board (PCB) has a ground. PCBs are critical to the functioning of nearly all electronics, and each PCB needs proper grounding to function correctly. People use the term ground to describe various concepts. In this article, we’ll discuss these concepts, the importance of a ground in a PCB and the different methods one can use for grounding in a PCB. What Is a Ground? A ground is a conducting body that acts as an arbitrary node of potential

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PCB Testing Methods Guide

Why PCB Testing Is Necessary? What Is Being Tested? Types of Testing Methods In-Circuit Test (ICT) Fixtureless In-Circuit Test Functional Circuit Test Boundary Scan Testing Design for Manufacturing (DFM) Design for Assembly (DFA) Design for Test (DFT) Design for Supply Chain (DSC) Choose Millenium Circuits PCB Testing Methods Guide The last thing any designer wants is to discover last-minute that their product is faulty. Electronics of all types, even if they’re properly designed and meticulously built, are prone to problems. Many electronics come out of the prototype stage with plenty of bugs and issues for their designers to troubleshoot. However, when something is left unnoticed until the product is out in the field, it can mean huge problems for the company. It’s for this reason that testing electronics is so important, especially for PCBs. Why PCB Testing Is Necessary Testing is a crucial part of the development cycle for PCBs.

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Guide to PCB Gold Fingers

In today’s computerized and mobile-activated world, signals are sent between numerous devices. For each command to be enacted, communication must be made between two or more circuit boards. None of this would be possible without gold fingers, which serve as the connecting contacts between motherboards and components like graphics or sound cards. The technology used to transmit these signals and commands is a huge leap forward from earlier electronics, which typically consisted of separate modules that were difficult to bring into communication with one another. With gold fingers, the processes of one circuit board are immediately read by the main processing board. The processes associated with this advanced technology extend across all corners of the public and private sectors. In the world of manufacturing, signals are sent between various devices and machines to enact a series of processes, many of which could not be carried out by human hands. At

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PCB Glossary

  • Subtractive Processing

    The method of selectively removing copper from a board to form a circuit. In this case, “subtractive” refers to the method of image transfer from a phototool or image file to the copper circuit.